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OfflineSpaceMonkey
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Understanding soil nutrients * 2
    #277657 - 09/09/09 02:34 PM (7 years, 2 months ago)

Ok, this is a chart i downloaded from an agricultural website and have been using it for several years now for diagnosing plant nutrient deficiencies. This chart is not about Mary Jane but instead a general description for vegetable crop type plants.





Understanding Soil Nutrients



NITROGEN

Soil Mobility

Nitrogen is not mobile in the Ammonium form (NH4+).

Nitrogen is very mobile in the Nitrate form (NO3-).

Plant Uptake

Plants absorb most of their nitrogen in the NH4+ and NO3- forms.

Functions in the Plant

Important constituent of the chlorophyll molecule.

Important constituent of amino acids, proteins, nucleotides, nucleic acids, amines
and amides.

Deficiency Symptoms

Stunting of the plant.

Yellow appearance.

Chlorosis beginning at leaf tips and extending back along leaf blade.

Lower leaves show symptoms first.

Factors Effecting Deficiency

All crops except legumes require additional nitrogen beyond natural sources to

produce maximum yields.

Natural Supply Sources

Organic matters

Water (Irrigation and/or rainfall)

Livestock manures



PHOSPHOROUS

Soil Mobility

Mainly immobile, can move some in sandy soils.

Plant Uptake

H2PO4- on lower pH soils.

H2PH4-- on higher pH soils.

Function in Plant

Storage and transfer of energy obtained by photosynthesis and metabolism of

carbohydrates (ATP/ADP)

Essential component of coenzymes in plants which are involved in electron

transport reactions.

Integral part of plant reproductive system as a component of RNA/DNA.

Deficiency Symptoms

Purpling of lower leaves and stem on corn.

Corn ears will have uneven fill and curve at the tip.

Stunting.

Delayed maturity.

Soybeans and alfalfa may not show strong color effects but will redden lower

stem is P is extremely deficient. Both crops will exhibit stunting - forages will

have seedling development problems.

Factors Effecting Deficiency

Soil pH, greatest availability between 6.0 - 7.5.

PHOSPHOROUS - continued

Low CEC soils.

Soil microorganisms - more abundant in higher organic matter soils.


Natural Supply Source

Organic matter

Minerals

Absorbed phosphate



POTASSIUM

Soil Mobility

Potassium is somewhat mobile. More mobile on sandy or high organic matter

soils.

Plant Uptake

Potassium is taken up by the plant in K+ ions. Maximum demand by corn plants

for potassium is approximately 3 weeks prior to tasseling.

Functions in the Plant

Translocation of carbohydrates.

Starch synthesis (increases starch content in grain).

Activator of enzyme systems.

Plays important role in photosynthesis.

Regulates stomatal openings.

Necessary for normal lignin and cellulose development, which gives strength and

stiffness to plants.

Deficiency Symptoms

Marginal burn on leaves begins at the tip and extends back along margin.

Shows up on older leaves first.

May see poor brace root development,

Plants more prone to lodging.

Seeds and fruits shriveled.

Poor grain fill.

Legumes may die off.

Factors Effecting Deficiency

Lack of soil moisture.

Water logged soils.

Low pH soils.

Recently limed soils (calcium has been shown to compete with K+).

Natural Supply Sources

Disintegration and decomposition of rocks containing potassium-bearing

minerals.



CALCIUM

Soil Mobility

Held fairly tight to soil colloids, but will leach out of topsoils in light textured,

well drained soils.

Plant Uptake

Ca++ exchangeable form. Absorbed from soil solution and also adsorbed off of

soil colloid surfaces.

Functions in Plant

Necessary for cell elongation and normal cell division.

Protein synthesis.

Affects permeability of membranes.

Important in the formation and functioning of root nodule bacteria.

Also important role in soil texture by aggregating colloidal clay and humus particles.

Deficiency Symptoms

Seldom encountered in row crops.

CALCIUM - continued

Uniform chlorosis that appears first on young leaves.

Retarded growth of terminal bud.


Grass crops - leaves fail to unroll.

Stunted roots.

Factors Effecting Deficiency

Coarse textured sandy soils with low CEC and low pHs.

Conditions impairing the root growth will reduce uptake of Ca.

Natural Supply Source

Different types of minerals, such as feldspars, amphibole, pyroxene, dolomite,

calcite, apatite and gypsum.



MAGNESIUM

Soil Mobility

Does not leach readily from soil, held on surface of clay and organic matter

particles.

Plant Uptake

Mg++, mass flow mainly, root interception lesser extent.

Function in Plant

Most important role is the formation of chlorophyll.

Aids in formation of many plant compounds, such as sugars, proteins, oils and fat.

Regulates uptake of other plant nutrients, especially phosphorous.

Involved in the translocation and metabolism of carbohydrates.

Deficiency Symptoms

Interveinal chlorosis of lower leaves starting at leaf margins and progressing

inward. As deficiency becomes severe the leaves turn reddish purple.

Symptoms occur most frequently in small plants.

Severe deficiency causes stunting.

Factors Effecting Deficiency

Acid sandy soils.

Organic soils containing free calcium carbonate.

Soils with very high available potassium.

Continued liming with calcitic limestone (low Mg content).

Natural Supply Source

Weathering of minerals.



SULFUR

Soil Mobility

Sulfur is very mobile in the soil.

Plant Uptake

Sulfur (S2) is oxidized, sulfofication to form available sulfate (SO4--).

Functions in the Plant

Constituent of three amino acids found in plant proteins.

Component of glycosides involved in respiration.

Nodule formation in legumes.

Oil synthesis (soybean, sunflower).

Deficiency Symptoms

Stunting of plant.

Plants will have a light green color (resembles nitrogen deficiency).

Chlorosis may occur on the entire plant.

Corn may have striping of upper leaves (mostly young plants).

Legume plants (alfalfa) will have long and slender leaves.

Alfalfa plants will not branch normally resulting in a thin stand and delayed

maturity.

Factors Effecting Deficiency

SULFUR - continued

Sandy soils.

Low organic matter soils.


Rain or irrigation water low in sulfur.

Natural Supply Source

Organic matter is the primary source.



ZINC

Soil Mobility

Immobile.

Plant Uptake

Zn++, diffusion on soil solution.

Functions in Plant

Component of several respiratory enzymes and other enzymes.

Forms covalent bonds with nitrogen and sulfur.

Influence electron transfer reactions subsequently on energy production in plant.

Deficiency Symptoms

Light streaking of upper leaves which develop into a bread band of bleached

tissue on each side of midribs. Leaf midrib and margin areas remain green.

Plant will be stunted.

Severely affected plants may show chlorosis on all leaves.

Symptoms usually occur within first 2 weeks after emergence.

Soybeans - interveined chlorosis of young leaves, similar to iron.

Factors Effecting Deficiency

Acid, sandy soils low in zinc.

High pH, calcareous soils.

Erosion of topsoil (reduced organic matter).

High levels of phosphorous availability.

Natural Supply Source

Most available is associated with organic matter.

Sulfide and silicate minerals.



IRON

Soil mobility

Iron is not mobile in the soil.

Plant Uptake

Plant uptake occurs in oxidized form of Fe++ (Ferrous).

Functions in the Plant

Chlorophyll synthesis

Metabolism of sugars.

Component of hemoprotein in root nodules on legumes.

Deficiency Symptoms

Corn and Milo

Severe interveinal chlorosis (develops on younger tissue first).

Veins of effected leaves may remain green.

Severe deficiencies - all chlorophyll may be lost and leaves turn white.

Soybeans

Appears very early in plant growth.

Yellowing between the veins.

Eventually entire leaves and stalks become yellow and almost white.

Eventually leads to loss of chlorophyll in the veins.

Factors Effecting Deficiency

High pH soils - increase in pH decreases solubility of ferrous and ferric iron.

Low organic matters.

Wet soils (poor drainage).

IRON - continued

Natural Supply Sources

Organic matter.


Livestock manure.



MANGANESE

Soil Mobility

Mobile

Plant Uptake

Mn++

Functions in Plant

Activator of many enzymes, component of enzymes.

Known to substitute for magnesium in sugar metabolism.

Can be toxic to plants in high amounts.

Deficiency Symptoms

Interveinal chlorosis of young leaves.

General stunting.

Similar to iron deficiencies.

Factors Effecting Deficiency

Humid areas with high organic matter soils.

Soils that have been drained and cropped.

High pH, calcareous soils.

Natural Supply Sources

Weathering of primary minerals.



COPPER

Soil Mobility

Immobile.

Plant Uptake

Cu++, root interception.

Functions in Plants

Mainly associated with enzymes.

Deficiency Symptoms

Pale yellow color of newer leaves.

Die back of newer leaves.

Early wilting.

Most frequent in young plants.

Factors Effecting Deficiency

Solubility of copper compounds like iron and zinc tends to decrease sharply as pH

increases.

High organic matter soils such as peat or mulch soils are more susceptible to

deficiency than mineral soils.

Natural Supply Sources

Mainly sulfide minerals.



MOLYBDENUM

Soil Mobility

Somewhat mobile.

Plant Uptake

MoO4--

Functions in Plant

Activator for enzymes, reduction of nitrates.

Necessary for symbiotic fixation of nitrogen.

Deficiency Symptoms

Uniform chlorosis of whole plant.

MOLYBDENUM - continued

Extreme curling of leaves which give “whip tail” effect.

Factors Effecting Deficiency


More severe under dry soil conditions.

Soil pH availability increases with increasing pH.

Natural Supply Source

Primary and secondary minerals.

Bound to iron and aluminum oxides.

Organically bound molybdenum.



BORON

Soil Mobility

Boron is mobile in the soil. Boron has greatest mobility of any micronutrients

in the soil

Plant Uptake

Boron may be absorbed on one or more of its ionic forms, but most likely will be

in the form of H3BO3 when pH’s are below 9.2.

Functions in the Plant

Sugar translocation.

Cell elongation and development.

Carbohydrate metabolism

Pollen germination (formation of seed in alfalfa).

Deficiency Symptoms

Mild deficiencies show up as mainly reduced flowering and seed set.

More severe deficiencies produce shortening of the internodes in the upper

portions of the plant.

Upper leaves become rosetted and turn yellow on most of the leaf surface.

Factors Effecting Deficiency

Low organic matters.

Overliming acid soils to pH levels above 7.5.

Natural Supply Source

Organic matter.



CHLORINE

Soil Mobility

Chlorine is mobile in the soil.

Plant Uptake

Chlorine is absorbed in the chloride ion form (Cl-).

Functions in the Plant

Effects hydration of plant tissue.

Involved in photochemical reactions in photosynthesis.

Required for growth and sugar synthesis in sugar beets.

Deficiency Symptoms

Severe deficiency shows chlorosis and necrosis of leaf areas.

Wilted leaf tips.

Bronze discoloration.

Natural Supply Source

Soluble salts (particularly sodium chloride).


--------------------

:guns: Don't Mistake My Kindness For Weakness :guns:


Edited by SpaceMonkey (09/09/09 03:55 PM)


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InvisibleMagashM
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: SpaceMonkey]
    #277686 - 09/09/09 03:53 PM (7 years, 2 months ago)

:thumbup:


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OfflineKaptKid
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: SpaceMonkey]
    #277699 - 09/09/09 05:40 PM (7 years, 2 months ago)

Thanks for sharing.


      :bonghit:


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OfflineSpaceMonkey
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: KaptKid]
    #279318 - 09/12/09 05:20 PM (7 years, 2 months ago)

no problem!
Been seeing a bunch of deficiency threads so figured it was time to educate. While the write up was intended for vegetable crops, the symptoms and cures are relatively close to our Herbs. As well as a little educational info on how these nutrients work and how they are obtained by the plants. 

Enjoy! :getstoned:


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OfflineFarmer Joe
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: SpaceMonkey]
    #292349 - 10/05/09 06:12 PM (7 years, 2 months ago)

This thread has been copied...pasted...printed and is now tacked up on the cork board in my barn. Very beneficial spacemonkey. Props :thumbup:


--------------------
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InvisibleFurrowedBrowM
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: Farmer Joe]
    #292429 - 10/05/09 08:41 PM (7 years, 2 months ago)

Quote:

Farmer Joe said:
This thread has been copied...pasted...printed and is now tacked up on the cork board in my barn. Very beneficial spacemonkey. Props :thumbup:




Right on!  Thanks for sharing SM!


--------------------





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OfflineSpaceMonkey
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: FurrowedBrow]
    #292569 - 10/05/09 11:44 PM (7 years, 2 months ago)

No problem, glad you enjoyed the post/reference. :thumbup:

Will be posting a nutrient reference here in the near future! Look for it soon on the main site

:gethigh:


--------------------

:guns: Don't Mistake My Kindness For Weakness :guns:


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OfflineOrganicWayzzzz
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: SpaceMonkey]
    #374026 - 02/26/10 01:03 PM (6 years, 9 months ago)

very helpful, appreciated :tongue2:


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OfflineDephect


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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: OrganicWayzzzz]
    #374285 - 02/26/10 09:16 PM (6 years, 9 months ago)

I know its a old thread but it just came up as a new post. This is very helpful SpaceMonkey. Thanks for the information!


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OfflineSpaceMonkey
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: Dephect]
    #374385 - 02/26/10 11:26 PM (6 years, 9 months ago)

:foshizzle:
Glad you found it useful.
:ganja:
Now grow some trees!


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OfflineDephect


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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: SpaceMonkey]
    #374446 - 02/27/10 01:53 AM (6 years, 9 months ago)

All ready at it brotha!

:awehigh:


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OfflineSpaceMonkey
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: Dephect]
    #374615 - 02/27/10 03:07 PM (6 years, 9 months ago)

:thumbup:


--------------------

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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: SpaceMonkey]
    #489850 - 10/20/10 07:39 PM (6 years, 1 month ago)

slight revision so this gem isn't obsolete for folk with a hard time understanding the mechanics behind nutrients but who bare great interest in their own specimens and would benefit greatly from minimal observational skills and timely reactions.





Understanding Soil Nutrients for Chem Flunkees and Lazy individuals


...NPK?/20-20-20??  important nutrients available in plant food:




-NITROGEN  (Vegetating? Here's "N")

Functions in the Plant:

Important constituent of the chlorophyll molecule.

Deficiency Symptoms:

Stunting of the plant.

Yellow appearance.

Chlorosis beginning at leaf tips and extending back along leaf blade.

Lower leaves show symptoms first.

Factors Effecting Deficiency:

*All crops except legumes require additional nitrogen beyond natural sources to

produce maximum yields.

Natural Supply Sources:

Organic matters

Water (Irrigation and/or rainfall)

Livestock manures



-PHOSPHOROUS  (Flowering? Here's "P")

Function in Plant:

Storage and transfer of energy obtained by photosynthesis and metabolism of

carbohydrates (ATP/ADP)

Essential component of coenzymes in plants which are involved in electron

transport reactions.

Deficiency Symptoms:

Stunting.

Delayed maturity.

Factors Effecting Deficiency:

Soil pH, greatest availability between 6.0 - 7.5.

Soil microorganisms - more abundant in higher organic matter soils.

Natural Supply Source:

Organic matter

Minerals



-POTASSIUM  (Vegetating? You remember "N." Here's "K")

Functions in the Plant:

Activator of enzyme systems.

Plays important role in photosynthesis.

*Necessary for normal lignin and cellulose development, which gives strength and

stiffness to plants.

Deficiency Symptoms:

Marginal burn on leaves begins at the tip and extends back along margin.

Shows up on older leaves first.

May see poor brace root development,

Plants more prone to lodging.

Seeds and fruits shriveled.

Factors Effecting Deficiency:

Lack of soil moisture.

Water logged soils.

Low pH soils.

Recently limed soils (calcium has been shown to compete with K+).

Natural Supply Sources:

Disintegration and decomposition of rocks containing potassium-bearing

minerals.



...Did those work out for you? Try learning a little abuot trace elements and what they do:



-CALCIUM  (Need those buds a little earlier than intended? Not gonna happen with just an element. But in the microscopic realm this stuff helps.)

Important role in soil texture by aggregating colloidal clay and humus particles.

Deficiency Symptoms:

Retarded growth of terminal bud.

Grass crops - leaves fail to unroll.

Stunted roots.

Factors Effecting Deficiency

Coarse textured sandy soils with low CEC and low pHs.

Conditions impairing the root growth will reduce uptake of Ca.

Natural Supply Source:

Different types of minerals, such as feldspars, amphibole, pyroxene, dolomite,

calcite, apatite and gypsum.



-MAGNESIUM  (You already got some "P" in your plans, might as well take advantage of it.)

Function in Plant:

Most important role is the formation of chlorophyll.

Regulates uptake of other plant nutrients, especially phosphorous.

SULFUR

Functions in the Plant:

Component of glycosides involved in respiration.

Deficiency Symptoms:

Stunting of plant.

Plants will have a light green color (resembles nitrogen deficiency).

Factors Effecting Deficiency

Sandy soils.

Low organic matter soils.

Natural Supply Source:

Organic matter is the primary source.



-ZINC  (Vegetating?/Not using much P? Is your pH like you(a little too high)?)

Functions in Plant:

Component of several respiratory enzymes and other enzymes.

Forms covalent bonds with nitrogen and sulfur.

Influence electron transfer reactions subsequently on energy production in plant.

Deficiency Symptoms:

Plant will be stunted.

Severely affected plants may show chlorosis on all leaves.

Symptoms usually occur within first 2 weeks after emergence.

Factors Effecting Deficiency:

Acid, sandy soils low in zinc.

High pH, calcareous soils.

High levels of phosphorous availability.

Natural Supply Source:

Most available is associated with organic matter.



-IRON  (Is your pH down low?)

Functions in the Plant:

Chlorophyll synthesis

Factors Effecting Deficiency:

High pH soils - increase in pH decreases solubility of ferrous and ferric iron.

Low organic matters.

Wet soils (poor drainage).

Natural Supply Sources:

Organic matter.

Livestock manure.



-MANGANESE  (Likes low pH as well)

Functions in Plant:

Activator of many enzymes, component of enzymes.

*Can be toxic to plants in high amounts.

Deficiency Symptoms:

Interveinal chlorosis of young leaves.

General stunting.

Similar to iron deficiencies.

Factors Effecting Deficiency:

Humid areas with high organic matter soils.

Soils that have been drained and cropped.

High pH, calcareous soils.

Natural Supply Sources:

Weathering of primary minerals.



-COPPER  (work out the rest for yourself.)

Functions in Plants:

Mainly associated with enzymes.

Deficiency Symptoms:

Pale yellow color of newer leaves.

Die back of newer leaves.

Early wilting.

Most frequent in young plants.

Factors Effecting Deficiency

Solubility of copper compounds like iron and zinc tends to decrease sharply as pH

increases.

High organic matter soils such as peat or mulch soils are more susceptible to

deficiency than mineral soils.

Natural Supply Sources:

Mainly sulfide minerals.



-MOLYBDENUM

Functions in Plant:

Activator for enzymes, reduction of nitrates.

Necessary for symbiotic fixation of nitrogen.

Deficiency Symptoms:

Uniform chlorosis of whole plant.

Extreme curling of leaves which give “whip tail” effect.

Factors Effecting Deficiency:

More severe under dry soil conditions.

Soil pH availability increases with increasing pH.

Natural Supply Source"

Primary and secondary minerals.



-BORON

Functions in the Plant:

Cell elongation and development.

Deficiency Symptoms:

Mild deficiencies show up as mainly reduced flowering and seed set.

More severe deficiencies produce shortening of the internodes in the upper

portions of the plant.

Upper leaves become rosetted and turn yellow on most of the leaf surface.

Factors Effecting Deficiency:

Low organic matters.

Overliming acid soils to pH levels above 7.5.

Natural Supply Source:

Organic matter.



-CHLORINE

Functions in the Plant:

Effects hydration of plant tissue.

Involved in photochemical reactions in photosynthesis.

Deficiency Symptoms:

Severe deficiency shows chlorosis and necrosis of leaf areas.

Wilted leaf tips.

Natural Supply Source:

Soluble salts (particularly sodium chloride).


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Invisibledutchmushroom
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: lifemaker]
    #493130 - 10/29/10 12:36 PM (6 years, 1 month ago)

Just one thing I wanna put here,
I have had Nitro burn on young plants by using the same soil from previous grows without washing prior to re-use


--------------------
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OfflineBigBudz
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: dutchmushroom]
    #515639 - 01/19/11 04:15 PM (5 years, 10 months ago)

Really simple way to grow plants in soil, is to do a soil / coco mix and feed them like it's hydroponics; every 3 days. Water as needed in between the feedings. Really simple, with excellent results.

Pretty hard to screw it up too. You have to be super aggressive with feedings to mess it up. As long as you stick to only feeding every 3 days, you have to be pretty nuts mixing your nutrients to overfeed.


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OfflineAgent 47
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: BigBudz]
    #562572 - 06/06/11 11:12 PM (5 years, 6 months ago)

Can't forget about nutrient antagonism.
http://www.totalgro.com/concepts.htm

This is why I can't understand cannabis specific fertilizer giving backward ratio's .. 0-5-5 for example.

Letting your leaves die during flowering is just one of the internet fallacies. Leaves produce bud!

Dyna-Gro is the only product I've seen offer all 16 essentials elements in one bottle. Generally if it's a "canna" food, it's a gimmick.


--------------------



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OfflineIrishdrunk
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: SpaceMonkey]
    #646377 - 11/17/12 08:34 AM (4 years, 22 days ago)

stfu and grow some good weed already fuck


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between the rational and the irrational,
between good and evil.
The good does not always triumph.
Sometimes the dark side overcomes
what Lincoln called the better
angels of our nature.


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OfflineJavadog
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: Irishdrunk] * 1
    #646421 - 11/17/12 11:34 AM (4 years, 22 days ago)

That was a year and a half ago ID....I expect that they got weed by now.


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Offlinepops1255
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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: Javadog]
    #650644 - 12/11/12 05:10 PM (3 years, 11 months ago)

What do youll think about fresh red worm castings


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Re: Understanding soil nutrients [Re: pops1255]
    #650673 - 12/11/12 09:32 PM (3 years, 11 months ago)

Worm casting are great.  But as I stated in the other thread, it needs to be used in conjunction with other nutrients.


--------------------
Dude she isn't as young as she use to be.

-niteowl


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